Shenzhen prostitution places

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Since the s, informal or clandestine sex work in the service or entertainment industry has spread from municipalities to small towns in most areas of China. Despite recognition of the important role of female sex workers in HIV and STD epidemics in China, limited data are available regarding their individual characteristics and social and environmental context of their work.

Furthermore, most existing studies on commercial sex in China have been conducted in large cities or tourist attractions. Using data from female sex workers in a rural Chinese county, the current study was deed to explore the individual profile of commercial sex workers and to examine whether the profile and sexual risk behavior differ by where the female sex workers came from and where they work.

The sample in the current study was different from studies in a of key individual characteristics.

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The data in the current study suggest a strong association of individual profile with the economic conditions of work sites and residence status in-province residency versus out-province residence which suggests that such efforts must take the social and cultural contextual factors of their working environment and sexual risks into consideration. While the of infected individuals may be relatively small in a country with a population of 1. About two-thirds of shenzhen prostitution places were among individuals 20 to 39 years of age, with a male predominance.

Prostitution in mainland China was declared to be eradicated in the early s. While the actual of female sex workers in China is unknown, the of women engaging in commercial sex in mainland China has been estimated to be from 4 to 10 million Yang et al.

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Chinese women enter the sex trade through different paths or for different reasons. A small proportion of women particularly young or underage girls are deceived or forced into the trade against their will Shenzhen prostitution places et al. A large proportion is driven into the business as a result of poverty and limited employment opportunities. Some women in both rural and urban areas choose the sex trade as a means to support their families.

Some unskilled, low-educated female rural-to-urban migrants come to urban centers looking for better lives but find limited opportunity for legitimate employment or employment that would provide them with living conditions above subsistence. Attracted by a relatively high income, some women enter the sex trade as a route to rapid financial gains.

There is great heterogeneity among female sex workers in Shenzhen prostitution places in terms of their working environment. Some sex workers only work on a part-time or occasional basis to supplement their income from legitimate employment. For example, a recent study among female rural-to-urban migrant workers in Beijing and Najing China indicates that 6. The payment to women is not on the basis of each sexual encounter; it is based on the demand of the relationship. While some female sex workers in China are street-based or freelance, the majority of them encounter their clients in entertainment establishments e.

While these establishments are all popular venues for women to provide sexual service to customers, they differ substantially in terms of the types of working and living conditions. Usually, the women are selected by the customers as companions e.

The employers of the establishments typically provide living accommodation for these women on their premises, so that they can be available anytime.

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Hair salons or hair-washing rooms have a reputation of providing sexual service in China. In a typical hair washing room and hair salon, an owner or manager who is most likely an experienced sex worker operates a shop with several young women.

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The shop usually opens from early morning until late night. Many young women are employed by hair salons or barbershops to provide unskilled services such as shampooing and head or body massaging requiring no more than one-week on-the-job training. Many of these women negotiate sexual services with clients during such personal contacts.

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The establishments typically pay the women a minimum monthly base wage e. In addition, they may also receive tips from customers directly as part of their income. Bathhouses are places where bath, massage and entertainment e. These establishments are usually open 24 hours a day and shenzhen prostitution places especially busy at night from late evening to early morning. Women working in beauty salons or bathhouses receive a base salary, supplemented by bonuses that are proportional to the of customers they serve. They have contact with a wide range of persons during work Zheng et al.

Dance halls or nightclubs are places for entertainment or socialization e. Women working in such establishments include waitresses and entertainers. Waitresses, who provide shenzhen prostitution places and snacks, are employed by the owner and have regular work schedules and salaries. Most entertainers, however, are not employed by the owner but are allowed to work at the establishments because they attract clients and promote business through their escort services. Their income is dependent on payments or tips from the customers. In many of these entertainment establishments, female sex workers accompany clients for singing, drinking and dancing and provide sexual service.

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The Chinese government policies towards commercial sex are based on the rehabilitation model that was instituted in the early s with the goal of eliminating prostitution. However, actual government practices regarding commercial sex are more complex. On one hand, commercial sex is still illegal under current Chinese law and since the s, the government has continued to pass laws to control commercial sex.

On the other hand, in practice, law enforcement is somewhat more tolerant of existing commercial sex enterprises. Some local governments have even promoted the entertainment establishments or personal service sectors that potentially provide commercial sex to attract foreign or out-of-town investors and businessmen.

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Within this shenzhen prostitution places, commercial sex has spread widely throughout every city or township in the country; however, commercial sex is still subject to legal punishment. Each year between 40, and 50, women are detained in these facilities Qu et al. Sex work is a highly stigmatized occupation in China; female sex workers, who are not protected by the laws, are vulnerable to abuse, violence and infectious diseases including HIV and STD.

Since the s, informal or clandestine sex work in the service or entertainment industry has spread from municipalities to small towns in remote areas Hershatter, ; Pan, However, most studies on commercial sex in China have been conducted in large cities or in tourist attractions such as Guangzhou provincial capital and largest city in South China van den Hoek, et al. Available data has revealed some characteristics of this population: most female sex workers are young, in their teens or 20s, with only a primary or junior high school education.

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Most of them were migrants from rural areas. Most of the female sex workers are highly mobile, moving from one establishment to another about every 3 to 4 months Rogers et al. Several studies addressing commercial sex conducted in China utilized data from incarcerated women Gil et al.

Among the millions of sex workers in China, only a small portion has been arrested and even fewer have been sent to reeducation centers. Therefore, findings based on data of women in reeducation centers may not be representative of of the majority female sex workers. While entertainment establishments where these women work vary substantially in terms of the context of working and living Yang et al. Therefore, the current study was deed to explore the profiles of Chinese women who provide shenzhen prostitution places service through entertainment establishments e.

Specifically, this study was deed to 1 explore the profile of the study sample in terms of their individual characteristics, sexual experience, and history of sex work, working environment, and other health behaviors and mental health indicators; and shenzhen prostitution places examine whether the profile and shenzhen prostitution places risk behavior differ by where the female sex workers come from and where they work.

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It is bordered by Guangdong Province on the east, the Gulf of Tonkin on the south and Vietnam on the southwest. Because of its central location in southwest China, Guangxi has historically been a transport hub for trade, commerce, and tourism in southwest China and South East Asia.

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Guangxi has a population of Guangxi has witnessed an alarming shenzhen prostitution places in HIV prevalence in the past decade. A total of 8, HIV infected cases has been officially reported as of the end ofwith an estimated of infected cases as high as 80, Guangxi CDC, Guangxi ranks third among Chinese provinces in terms of reported seropositive cases. Similar to the national epidemic, the majority of infected cases are from rural areas. The prosperous economy, international contact, and tourism in Guangxi have created a demand and market for commercial sex. According to the statistics from the public security agency, there are at least 50, female sex workers in Guangxi, although the actual is believed to be substantially higher Liu Wei et al.

Female sex workers provide sexual service primarily through three venues in Guangxi: 1 hotels, restaurants, nightclubs, karaoke bars, dancing halls, and other entertainment establishments; 2 barbershop, hair-washing room, saunas, and massage parlors; and 3 roide food stalls in rural-urban shenzhen prostitution places Liu et al. H County, about 90 kilometers northeast from Nanning, is the most populous county in Nanning suburban area. H County has jurisdiction over 22 townships with a total population of 1. Zhuang is one of the 55 ethnic minorities in China.

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Besides its proximity to Nanning, H County is the biggest production and distribution center for jasmine and jasmine tea in China. The officially reported of drug users here is 1, in It was estimated that there are about entertainment establishments with more then 2, women offering sexual service in the county. The majority of these women were working in restaurants, barbershops, and hair-washing rooms. Participants in the current study were recruited from restaurants, barbershops, and hair-washing rooms from three geographic locations in H County: the county seat, a recently established development zone in rural-urban conjunction, and one rural township.

The county seat has an area of 15 square kilometers with a population ofThe development zone, about 10 kilometers from the county seat, is an area approximately 5 square kilometers in size. This zone was established in the late s and has more than small shenzhen prostitution places in the area. The development zone and surrounding areas have a population of 90, The rural township is 35 kilometers from the county seat and has a population of 35, The workplace mainly restaurants, hair salons, hair-washing rooms, and massage parlors was employed as the sampling unit. First, the research team and local health workers conducted an ethnographic-mapping of the establishments which provide sexual service.

The ethnographic-mapping identified these establishments with information from local health care providers e.

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A total of 85 establishments were identified in the three targeted areas 53 in county seat, 12 in the development zone, and 20 in the township with an estimated of greater than female sex workers in these establishments. Once the sex worker status was confirmed by the women themselves, the outreach workers explained the purpose, procedure, potential benefits and potential risks of the study to and invited these women to participate. Those women who expressed interest in the study were provided with an informed consent form and were assured of confidentiality and privacy.

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The questionnaire takes about 45—60 minutes to complete. The questionnaire was extensively pilot-tested in two waves among 22 women 7 in wave one and 15 in wave two to ensure the appropriateness of the content and language for shenzhen prostitution places study population. The participants completed the questionnaire in a separate room or a private space and recoded the unique personal code to the questionnaire.

No other person e. Most of the outreach workers and interviewers were health care workers from the county Anti-epidemic Station and local hospitals. They were carefully chosen and rigorously trained and re-trained on survey procedures and confidentiality issues and were asked to a pledge to protect the privacy and confidentiality of the participants.

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