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Nearly half of all sexually active people have had HPV at some point in their lives. Though most types of HPV do not cause hpv personals disease, some can lead to cancer. Left untreated, these high-risk types can cause cervical and anal cancers and less common cancers of the vulva, penis, scrotum, mouth and throat. HPV is a virus that lives in the flat, thin cells on the surface of your skin, called epithelial cells.
Most people who get HPV clear the infection on their own, often within 6 months to a year. More than types of HPV exist. Some hpv personals not appear to cause health problems at all while others cause the common and plantar warts. About 40 types are responsible for genital warts, while about a dozen high-risk types can cause dysplasia, which are abnormal cells that can lead to cancer.
Other high-risk types include 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58 and 59, some of which cause anal disease. See below for information on HPV prevention.
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The HPV types that cause genital warts are not linked to cancer. However, if you have one type of HPV then you may also have others, which could be the ones that cause cancer. This is especially true for people with HIV. There are three approaches to preventing HPV: using condoms during sex to prevent transmission, getting vaccinated from ages 9 to 26 to prevent infection, and getting screened regularly to prevent existing hpv personals from becoming more serious as described below. Condoms also reduce the risk of dysplasia and cancer, at hpv personals in women who reported consistent condom use in studies.
HPV can also be prevented by using one or more of three vaccines: Cervarix types 16, 18Gardasil types 6, 11, 16, 18and Gardasil 9 types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58although Gardasil 9 is now recommended over Gardasil. These vaccines are approved by the FDA for females and males aged 9 to 26, preferably before sexual activity has started.
These vaccines are safe to use in people living with HIV, although how effective they are has not been established hpv personals clinical study. Benefits from using these vaccines in those older than 26 years of age are currently being studied. Therapeutic vaccines are also being studied to help treat existing disease, to reduce the need for aggressive treatments, and to reduce the risk of recurring dysplasia.
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One such vaccine, called HspE7, is safe and possibly effective in HIV-positive men and women with anal dysplasia. Cancers of the mouth and throat can be due to HPV infections or other reasons, and people living with HIV have higher rates of these cancers. However, it is unknown if any of the vaccines reduces the rates of HPV-related oral cancers. HPV DNA testing may help identify risk but no tests are available to detect where oral cancer may appear, which makes screening difficult.
For those people living with HIV who have or have had other HPV disease, it may be wise to more closely watch for possible symptoms of oral cancers. People living with HIV are more likely to be infected with HPV than HIV-negative people, and are also more likely to develop genital warts, cervical and anal cancer, and head and neck cancer. This is due, in part, to people living much longer but with imperfectly preserved immune systems. Genital warts are diagnosed by a visual exam by your doctor.
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Dysplasia is diagnosed through a cervical or anal Pap test done by your doctor. Here, a small piece of tissue is removed and screened for abnormal cells. To examine the anus, you may have a digital rectal examination done, which is when your doctor inserts a finger into the anus to check for bumps or abnormal tissue. An anoscopy may also hpv personals done, which is when your doctor uses a special microscope to examine the anus more closely. Women should have their first cervical Hpv personals smear within a year of becoming sexually active or no later than 21 years.
Women with HIV should have a cervical Pap smear done at diagnosis and periodically thereafter. Men and women who practice anal sex should also have regular anal Pap smears although anal dysplasia can occur in women and men who report they do not engage in receptive anal sex.
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An abnormal Pap smear result means that a closer examination should be done. These lesions are referred to as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia CIN. If lesions are found, a biopsy can be performed to learn how serious the condition is. The biopsy will be scored from low-grade CIN 1 to moderate- and high-grade CIN 2, 3 according to the thickness of the abnormal cells.
CIN 1 is usually hpv personals treated but is monitored closely because it often resolves on its ownwhile CIN 2 or 3 are more likely to develop into cancer and often need to be treated to prevent cancer. Despite increasing rates of anal dysplasia AIN, anal intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer, the best method of detecting these conditions has not been determined. Some health providers recommend routine anal Pap smears and anoscopy, which is similar to cervical Pap smears. Other health providers prefer to refer patients for much more sensitive testing done by a specialist.
Either way, Hpv personals experts recommend routine anal dysplasia testing for all HIV-positive men who have hpv personals with men and women with a history of cervical dysplasia. Studies are also being done to clarify which methods are best for monitoring and treating anal dysplasia, much like what is already in place for cervical dysplasia. Treatments are available that remove or destroy irregular cells, like those in genital warts or dysplasia or cancer lesions.
Other treatments are still being hpv personals to cure the underlying HPV infection. Two out of five people will clear warts on their own. You or your doctor may treat genital warts. Treatment for dysplasia or cancer lesions must be done by a clinician.
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Some treatments cause more discomfort than others, and some need recovery time. People with HIV sometimes need more aggressive treatment. Depending on the treatment, side effects can include discomfort, irritation, pain, burning, and bleeding. Cryotherapy uses liquid nitrogen to freeze warts or other abnormal cells inside or near the genitals to treat genital warts and low-grade dysplasia.
Laser treatment is more aggressive than cryotherapy. It uses a high-powered light beam to burn and remove abnormal anal or cervical tissue, and is usually done in a hospital. LEEP loop electrical excision procedure is a type of surgery, and is almost always performed in a hospital. Like laser treatment, LEEP should not be used on lesions that are too deep to see hpv personals a colposcope or anoscope.
Cone biopsy cuts away abnormal cervical or anal tissue to diagnose and treat dysplasia. If the cancer spre, chemotherapy is often used to kill cancer cells in other parts of the body. Other treatments are also available, including electrocautery and infrared coagulation. A single treatment of moderate- or high-grade dysplasia may or may not be enough to prevent progressing disease.
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If you would like to find out if you are eligible for any clinical trials that include new therapies for the treatment or prevention of these HPV-related problems, visit ClinicalTrials. National Institutes of Health. For more info, you can call their toll-free at HIV or contactus aidsinfo. You have been inactive for 60 minutes and will be logged out in. Any updates not saved will be lost.
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Home Basics. Copy Link. Share Print. What is HPV? Can HPV be prevented? What are hpv personals symptoms of HPV? They are sometimes called condylomata acuminata or condylomas. The presence of warts may mean that dysplasia is also present and should be looked for. Cancer carcinoma : Dysplasia can develop into cancer. The four most common types are cervical, anal, rectal and penile cancers. HPV can also cause head and neck cancers of the mouth or throat.
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Symptoms may not be present, and if they are they can include bleeding, pain, odor or a noticeable mass. If not diagnosed and hpv personals early, these can become life-threatening. How is HPV diagnosed? Anal Dysplasia and Cancer Despite increasing rates of anal dysplasia AIN, anal intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer, the best method of detecting these conditions has not been determined. How is HPV treated? Are there any experimental treatments? Mutations, variants, strains?