Prostitution in baltimore maryland
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Footer developed the data analysis plan and wrote the original draft of the article.
Prostitution and policing: a model
Park conducted the data analysis. Galai provided content expertise on the analysis plan. Park, S. Allen, M. Decker, B. Silberzahn, S. Huettner, and S. Sherman provided content expertise and critical feedback on the analysis and interpretation and provided final approval for the article. To characterize interactions that female sex workers FSWs have with the police and explore associations with client-perpetrated violence.
Interviewer-administered questionnaires captured different patrol or enforcement and abusive police encounters, experiences of client-perpetrated violence, and other risk factors, including drug use. In multivariable analysis, each additional type of abusive interaction was associated with 1. For patrol or enforcement encounters, this value was 1. Frequent exposures to abusive police practices appear to contribute to an environment where client-perpetrated violence is regularly experienced.
For FSWs who inject prostitution in baltimore maryland, police exposure and client-perpetrated violence appear amplified. Public Health Implications. International calls to make violence against sex workers a human rights and public health priority are well established. In particular, compared with individual and interpersonal determinants of violence, the role of structural-level prostitution in baltimore maryland remains poorly articulated.
However, a social environment of gendered norms and unequal power relations leaves FSWs vulnerable to abuse from police and other perpetrators. In settings where sex work is criminalized, evidence suggests that a punitive and stigmatizing environment can normalize violence and deter FSWs from reporting or seeking redress.
A recent systematic review of the correlates of violence against sex workers found only 4 studies in Canada, India, and the United Kingdom that quantitatively explored the role of the police, often as a secondary focus. This is particularly true within the United States, where, to our knowledge, no existing studies have systematically quantified FSW interactions with the police despite recent increases in scrutiny following highly publicized human rights offenses committed by police against vulnerable populations, including street-based sex workers. Targeted sampling was used in 15 zones across Baltimore City, prostitution in baltimore maryland as where street-based FSWs worked.
Interested persons were invited to a study van, which was parked nearby, and screened. The exclusion criterion was identifying as male or a man. Eligible participants who provided informed consent participated in an interviewer-administered computer-assisted personal interview survey and HIV and STI testing. Shorter follow-up surveys and additional testing were conducted with participants across a further 4 field visits 3- 6- 9- and month. Participants received on-the-spot counseling for positive HIV tests and prostitution in baltimore maryland referred to a provider of their choice.
Biological specimens were collected for STI testing with self-administered vaginal swabs and sent for gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis testing. Laboratory testing used nucleic acid amplification tests Hologic, Marlborough, MA. All testing was confidential and described in the prostitution in baltimore maryland process; were prostitution in baltimore maryland to the Baltimore City Health Department for patient follow-up to ensure they were engaged in care. Participants were notified of their STI by disease intervention specialists with the Baltimore City Health Department or during follow-up interviews and provided with resources on where to seek treatment.
Referrals to a range of local health and social service organizations e. We collected information on age, gender, ethnicity, types and frequency of drug use, time in sex work, and the frequency of sex work. We drew survey items from existing validated scales, the literature, and studies. A list of different police interactions was developed from a systematic review of studies 27 and refined by a police ethnography conducted in Baltimore City and input from a Community Advisory Board comprising current and former sex workers.
We divided police interactions into 2 groups: patrol or enforcement practices and abusive practices. There were 7 patrol or enforcement practices: asking the women to move along, performing a routine stop, offering assistance being helped without expecting anything in return or being referred to health or social services, such as drug or alcohol treatment or a violence shelterconducting a search of person or property, confiscating drugs or drug paraphernalia, confiscating condoms, and arrest.
The survey was unable to capture whether the circumstances made individual interactions legal or extrajudicial e. Abusive practices consisted of 7 egregious acts outside the scope of enforcement practices: verbal or emotional harassment, sexual harassment or assault, damage of property, physical violence, pressuring the woman into having sex in exchange for no arrest, acceptance of money or other goods in exchange for no arrest, and having police becoming clients.
The only exception was police as clients, for which only the 3 months was considered. We also created 2 aggregate measures: aggregate patrol or enforcement exposure calculated as the total of different patrol or enforcement practices ever experienced and aggregate abusive exposure total of different abusive interactions ever experienced.
We used a bivariate logistic regression model to evaluate the associations with recent client-perpetrated violence, adjusting for intrazone correlations for women recruited from the same zone. To fit the model, we used generalized estimating equations with an exchangeable correlation structure and robust variance to adjust for zone clustering. Because we were interested in the overall association of patrol or enforcement and abusive police practices with client-perpetrated violence, we considered the aggregate rather than the individual police measures in multivariable analysis.
This approach assumes that each of the exposures included within the aggregate measures are of equal weight. We also assumed that a linear relationship between the of interactions and the log odds of violence, supported by observing an approximate linear effect when we considered this factor as a discrete rather than continuous covariate.
As a sensitivity analysis, we also estimated relative risks prostitution in baltimore maryland the final multivariable model with robust Poisson regression. We assessed multicollinearity by uncentered variance inflation factors. We found that all of the prostitution in baltimore maryland had interactions with the police.
The participants had, on average, experienced 6. The most common patrol or enforcement experiences included being arrested and routine stops. Of the abusive encounters, the most common were verbal or emotional harassment and sexual harassment or assault.
Drug use appeared to be key to the frequency and type of police encounters. Daily heroin users experienced an average of 4. Client-perpetrated violence was particularly high among drug users with FSWs who reported daily heroin use reporting 2. Of the patrol or enforcement practices, arrest, routine stops, being searched, drug or paraphernalia confiscations, and providing assistance were ificantly associated with client-perpetrated violence.
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Abusive practices were also linked to client-perpetrated violence including verbal or emotional harassment, sexual harassment or assault by the police, police damaging their property, and police being recent clients. We found that for each additional type of patrol or enforcement practice experienced, FSWs had 1. In addition, each additional type of abusive practice experienced was associated with a 1. Globally, it is known that criminalization, alongside social marginalization, places FSWs in vulnerable positions, including putting them at risk for work-related, client-perpetrated violence.
However, in the context of the United States in particular, the role of the police had ly been poorly understood. In particular, it has been unclear the extent to which FSWs encounter the police and whether these encounters are associated with changes in their risk environment. To fill this knowledge gap, we characterized FSW encounters with the police and explored the contribution that both day-to-day and abusive police practices may have on a risk environment that promotes client-perpetrated violence. The complex social and structural risk environment in which FSWs operate means that it is unlikely that specific police behaviors directly result in experiences of client-perpetrated violence.
Instead, a build up of frequent negative interactions accumulated over months and years may promote mistrust or fear of the police. This has ly been linked to different types of riskiness, including rushing of client negotiations and moving to unfamiliar or unsafe areas. Prostitution in baltimore maryland found that our entire cohort population had at least 1 type of interaction with the police in their lifetime and that 10 out of the 14 different police measures, across both routine and abusive practices, were ificantly associated with client-perpetrated violence in bivariate analyses.
We found evidence that police interactions had a profoundly negative association with each additional type of abusive interaction being associated with client-perpetrated violence in adjusted analysis. Although it was not ificant, the association of the patrol or enforcement activities in adjusted analysis with client-perpetrated violence was of the same magnitude as the abusive interactions.
These findings suggest that even nonabusive encounters, which occur on a much more frequent basis than abusive ones, also contribute to a risk environment that can facilitate client-perpetrated violence. work has identified drug use as strongly linked to client-perpetrated violence.
The FSWs who used heroin daily also had more encounters with the police abusive and nonabusive and were more likely to engage in sex work on a daily basis compared with other participants, likely linked to increased financial need for their drug dependency. These findings point to a complex layering of risk in which those with the highest dependence on drugs have increased exposure to the police because of their dual criminalized status and physical location in highly policed open-air drug markets.
In addition, higher frequency of engagement in sex work potentiates encounters with violent clients. In multivariable regression, when we adjusted for police interactions, we found that heroin use was no longer ificantly associated with client-perpetrated violence. This provides some evidence that police encounters may mediate at least some of the complex relationship between drug use and client-perpetrated violence.
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Findings from this study suggest that research with FSWs who are injection drug users should take into consideration the dynamics and the intertwined nature of drug use and police interactions on experiences of client-perpetrated violence. These include more proximal and upstream risk factors including choice of work environment e. Mechanisms that could explain this observation are unclear; however, different confounding factors by ethnicity may be relevant e.
Further research is needed to disentangle the factors that may explain these differences. We also found that positive police interactions, such as providing assistance, were also associated with increases in risk of client-perpetrated violence. This finding should be considered in the context in which such interactions are still typically coercive in nature i. This study adds to the knowledge base on the relationship between policing and client-perpetrated abuse among FSWs, but a of limitations must be noted. We used aggregate measures to capture the overall level of abusive and patrol or enforcement activities experienced by the women, which requires a relatively strong assumptions that each of the individual measures are of equal weight.
It is interesting to note that, although 4 of the patrol or enforcement practices were ificant in bivariate analysis, the single aggregate measure in multivariable analysis was not. Further work is needed to develop robust police exposure measurement tools prostitution in baltimore maryland can help identify the relative importance of individual measures for specific outcomes.
Although this represents one of the largest FSW cohorts in the United States, the sample size may have been insufficient to identify some risk factors and, as with all studies of this nature, there remains the real possibility of unmeasured confounding from factors we did not capture.
In addition, we cannot ascertain the degree to which our targeted sampling strategy was able to generate a representative sample of FSWs. Reasons for this may include that Black FSWs engage in sex work away from the street, including indoor venues such as exotic dance clubs and private homes.
Owing to the self-reported nature of the data, there is the possibility of response or social desirability prostitution in baltimore maryland on the part of participants with respect to violence and police measures. However, studies have shown a tendency to underreport issues around which there is sensitivity, particularly among populations such as FSWs, given the stigmatized and criminalized nature of their work. Despite this, it is acknowledged that some survey items overlapped and may have been difficult for participants to distinguish between, even with explanation e.
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Although data are taken from an ongoing cohort study, the data analyzed here are cross-sectional, thereby limiting our understanding of causality. Finally, the focus of this study is on street-based FSWs in the context of a North American setting, the majority of whom are people who inject drugs. Given the variety of FSW venues and the types of legal and social settings where sex work is undertaken, may not be generalizable to all sex-worker environments. Evidence in other settings has pointed to the positive impact of police sensitivity trainings, alongside FSW empowerment and rights awareness in reducing rates of violence.